High prevalence of Bordetella pertussis in children under 5 years old hospitalized with acute respiratory infections in Lima, Peru.

Pertussis diagnosis may go unrecognized when other pathogens, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) circulate.
A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Lima, Peru from January 2009 to September 2010. A total of 596 children under 5 years old admitted with clinical diagnoses of acute respiratory infections were test for B. pertussis and RSV detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
The pertussis toxin and IS481 genes were detected in 19.12 % (114/596) of the cases and the respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV-A and RSV-B) were identified in 17.28 % (103/596) of patients. Infants under 3 months old were the most frequently affected by this pathogens in 43 % (49/114) and 35.9 % (37/103) respectively. An increase of B. pertussis was observed from February to March and from October to November with a Seasonal index between 1.32 and 1.51 and 1.24-3.5 respectively.
Epidemiologic surveillance for B. pertussis is essential in Peru, especially in children that could most benefit from the vaccine. B. pertussis should be suspected in infants hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms for early treatment and prevent complication

Authors:Pavic-Espinoza I1, Bendezú-Medina S2, Herrera-Alzamora A3, Weilg P4, Pons MJ5, Aguilar-Luis MA6, Petrozzi-Helasvuo V7, Del Valle Mendoza J8.
Journal:BMC Infect Dis. 2015