In recipients primed with acellular pertussis diphtheria-tetanus combined vaccine (DTaP) an increased incidence of severe local reactions with extensive redness/swelling has been reported for each subsequent dose of diphtheria-tetanus based combination vaccine given as a booster. This has been attributed to residual active pertussis toxin (PT) in the primary vaccine. In this study, we investigated the possible contribution of the A-subunit enzymatic activity and the B-oligomer carbohydrate binding activity of residual PT in DTaP to local reactions in a murine model using Japanese DTaP batches produced before and after the introduction of a test for reversion of pertussis toxoid to toxin. Residual PT activity was correlated with the B-oligomer carbohydrate binding activity. The in vivo mouse footpad swelling model assay indicated that the B-oligomer carbohydrate binding activity and possibly other factors were associated with intensified sensitization to local reaction following diphtheria toxoid booster.
Journal:Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014