The Bordetella genus comprises nine species of which Bordetella pertussis and B. parapertussis are isolated from humans and are the most studied Bordetella species since they cause whooping cough. They both originate from B. bronchiseptica, which infects several mammals and immune compromised humans, but the intensive use of pertussis vaccines induced changes in B. pertussis and B. parapertussis populations. B. petrii and B. holmesii are other species of unknown reservoir and transmission pattern that have been described in humans. It is still unknown whether these species are pathogens for humans or only opportunistic bacteria but biological diagnosis has confirmed the presence of B. holmesii in human respiratory samples while B. petrii and the four other species have little implications for public health.
Journal:Expert Rev Vaccines. 2014